One of the touchstone principles in Australia’s regulation of the use of animals for scientific and educational purposes is reduction, refinement and replacement (3Rs). However, the use of animals for scientific and educational purposes is increasing in Australia, raising concerns about the effectiveness of the current regulatory framework in achieving the objectives of the 3Rs. This article critically evaluates the current regulatory framework in Australia. Several strengths are identified. However, 4 recommendations to improve the regulatory environment are proposed to bring Australia in line with international best practice. Specifically, Australian regulation governing the use of animals for scientific or educational purposes could be improved through greater transparency, higher standards of competency, the development of a central regulatory authority, and greater incentives to encourage research and development into nonanimal alternatives.